Analysis of apoptosis regulatory genes altered by histone deacetylase inhibitors in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells

Pérez-Perarnau et al, Epigenetics, 2011, 6:10, 1228

Histone deacetylases (HDACs) play a key role in the regulation of acetylation status not only of histones but also of many other non-histone proteins involved in cell cycle regulation, differentiation or apoptosis. Therefore, histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) have emerged as promising anticancer agents. Herein, we report the characterization of apoptosis in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) induced by two HDACi, Kendine 92 and SAHA. Both inhibitors induce dose-, time- and caspase-dependent apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway. Interestingly, Kendine 92 and SAHA show a selective cytotoxicity for B lymphocytes and induce apoptosis in CLL cells with mutated or deleted TP53 as effectively as in tumor cells harboring wild-type TP53. The pattern of apoptosis-related gene and protein expression profile has been characterized. It has shown to be irrespective of TP53 status and highly similar between SAHA and Kendine 92 exposure. The balance between the increased BAD, BNIP3L, BNIP3, BIM, PUMA and AIF mRNA expression levels, and decreased expression of BCL-W, BCL-2, BFL-1, XIAP and FLIP indicates global changes in the apoptosis mRNA expression profile consistent with the apoptotic outcome. Protein expression analysis shows increased levels of NOXA, BIM and PUMA proteins upon Kendine 92 and SAHA treatment. Our results highlight the capability of these molecules to induce apoptosis not only in a selective manner but also in those cells frequently resistant to standard treatments. Thus, Kendine 92 is a novel HDACi with anticancer efficacy for non-proliferating CLL cells.



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